How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Since we live in an computer-driven society, it should come as no surprise that your ability to repay your mortgage comes down to a single number.
This score is compiled by credit reporting agencies. They use the payment history from your various loans: credit cards, mortgages, car/boat loans and the like.
Each of the three credit agencies has its own formula for building your credit score. Fair Isaac and Cooriginally developed this score. .
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, all of the agencies use the following to determine a credit score:
- Your Credit History - How long have you had credit?
- Payment History - Have you paid more than 30 days late?
- Balances on your Credit Cards - How many accounts do you hold, and how much do you owe?
- Requests for Credit - How many times have lenders pulled your credit for the purpose of giving you a loan?
These factors are assigned weights based on the formula being used. The result is one number. Credit scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is better. Most home buyers likely find their scores above 620.
Your score affects your interest rate
FICO scores affect more than your ability to get a loan. They also affect your interest rate. Higher scores indicate you are probably a better credit risk, and thus may qualify for a better mortgage rate.
Improving your score
How can you improve your credit score? Despite what you hear from "credit repair" companies, the FICO score is calculated from your lifetime credit history, so you can't turn it around right away. You should appeal for the credit agency to remove any incorrect reporting from your credit report; this is really the only "quick fix" for credit problems.
Getting your FICO score
Before you can improve your FICO score, you have to get your score and make certain that the credit reports from each reporting agency are correct. Fair Isaac, the company that invented the first FICO credit score, offers FICO scores on myFICO.com. For a reasonable fee, you can get your FICO score from all three agencies, along with your credit report. They also provide helpful information and tools that help you analyze what actions might have the greatest impact on your FICO score.
You can get a free credit report every year from the three major agencies at AnnualCreditReport.com. While this report does not include a free credit score, the cost to "upgrade" your report to include a credit score is very reasonable.
Armed with this info, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to get the most favorable mortgage.
Want to know more about your credit score? Give us a call: (718) 477-4405.